Palatability of Cool-Season Forage Grasses

Grazing intake yields and palatability of cool-season grasses as tested in University of Wisconsin field trials, 1996 to present
MAX
MIN Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Total Total Palatabilityb Relative Relative
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Intake Intake Intake Palatability
% of % of % of % of % of % of % of tons/acre average to Average to Average Winter Rust Resistance
Orchardgrass season intakea season intake season intake season intake season intake season intake Trial Mean Total Intake Palatability Beta* Maturity Survival** Stem/Crown
ALBERT 28 28 35 9 . . 107 1.86 3.1 85% 100% -5.0 late 2 yes/.
ALPINE 37 8 20 15 14 6 106 1.93 3.2 88% 103% -4.1 2
AMBROSIA 26 25 17 12 13 8 104 2.04 2.8 93% 90% -3.7 2 yes/.
ATHOS 25 20 14 15 15 11 99 2.09 2.8 95% 90% -2.4 late 3 yes/.
BAR DGL9 BTR-F 24 24 39 13 . . 109 1.85 3.0 84% 97% -1.8 2
BARIDANA 37 10 17 17 13 7 130 2.30 3.3 105% 106% -4.0 late 2 yes/.
BENCHMARK 31 19 16 12 14 8 127 2.49 3.1 113% 100% -3.8 early 2 yes/.
BENCHMARK PLUS 28 26 35 11 . . 105 1.78 3.1 81% 100% -4.2 2 yes/.
BOUNTY 39 13 11 14 14 9 123 2.59 2.7 118% 87% -4.1 early 2 yes/.
CAS-EG23 30 32 15 9 14 . 113 2.20 3.3 100% 106% -5.5 2
CAS-LG38 20 23 44 13 . . 97 1.66 3.5 75% 113% 0 2
CENTURY 31 16 15 13 14 11 123 2.44 2.7 111% 87% -3.1 medium 2 yes/.
COMMAND 28 25 17 12 12 7 99 1.94 3.0 88% 97% -4.3 late 2 yes/.
CONDOR 34 9 17 14 16 9 117 1.98 3.5 90% 113% -3.1 2
DAWN 42 16 13 18 11 . 121 2.71 3.8 123% 123% -6.0 2
DGL N89-A 29 8 17 20 17 10 100 1.51 2.8 69% 90% -1.9 2
DP 6508 11 30 31 17 12 . 103 1.79 3.6 81% 116% -1.1 2
DUKE 39 8 16 13 15 8 122 2.06 3.1 94% 100% -3.9 2
EARLY ARCTIC 28 31 31 9 . . 122 2.13 3.2 97% 103% -5.7 medium 2
EASTWOOD 28 29 9 16 18 . 101 1.94 3.1 88% 100% -3.3 2
ELSIE 35 22 15 12 16 . 122 2.40 2.8 109% 90% -4.8 medium-late 2
EXTEND 24 23 20 15 14 5 120 3.11 2.9 141% 94% -3.6 late 2 yes/yes
HARVESTAR 53 24 9 11 2 . 108 1.75 3.3 80% 106% -11.5 late 2 yes/.
HAYMASTER 38 14 12 13 14 8 110 2.31 3.0 105% 97% -4.3 late 2 yes/.
HAYMATE 31 28 18 12 12 . 124 2.40 3.3 109% 106% -5.4 late 1
INTENSIV 28 27 37 8 . . 117 1.98 3.2 90% 103% -5.0 2
IOWA OG-1 35 8 18 16 15 8 125 2.03 2.3 92% 74% -3.3 2
KAY 30 39 14 9 9 . 113 2.21 3.2 100% 103% -7.2 2
LG-31 24 20 12 17 16 11 98 2.08 2.9 95% 94% -2.1 late 3
MAMMOTH 36 28 14 9 13 . 122 2.36 2.9 107% 94% -6.5 2 yes/.
MEGABITE 32 17 14 15 14 8 120 2.30 2.8 105% 90% -3.7 medium 2 yes/yes
MOW TOL GRAY 25 8 18 21 20 7 109 1.66 3.0 75% 97% -1.5 2
OG0203G 29 24 15 17 15 . 150 5.39 2.5 245% 81% -3.5 2
OG9501 24 26 23 17 10 . 135 2.29 3.3 104% 106% -3.7 2
PERSIST 68 9 9 11 3 . 96 1.57 3.5 71% 113% -12.8 2 yes/.
POTOMAC 27 14 13 24 17 6 112 2.72 2.6 124% 84% -2.4 early 3 yes/.
PROFILE 37 26 15 9 13 . 106 2.07 3.1 94% 100% -6.5 early 2
PROGRESS 31 31 14 10 14 . 109 2.10 3.1 95% 100% -5.5 medium-early 2 yes/.
STAMPEDE 22 24 27 17 10 . 122 2.07 3.4 94% 110% -3.1 early 1
TAKENA 23 26 25 13 12 . 114 2.13 3.7 97% 119% -3.5 medium 1
TEKAPO 24 7 20 17 22 10 104 1.68 2.9 76% 94% -0.8 2 yes/.
WARRIOR 26 16 19 15 14 8 127 2.29 3.2 104% 103% -2.9 early 1
Average 31 21 19 14 14 8 114 2.20 3.1
a intake based on difference between before-graze and after-graze pasture plate measurements
bPALAT.=Palatability rating 0=0% grazed, 1=20%, 2=40%, 3=60%, 4=80%, 5=100% grazed. 
   Palatability of grasses under grazing is determined by visual estimation of percent defoliation of plots.
   The visual determination is made midway during mob grazing by beef cows of the grass plots for intake determination.
*A high beta means more consistent season-long intake; a more negative beta means higher percentage of intake in first grazing period.
**Winter Survival: 1=superior, 2= good, 3=average, 4=poor, 5=none
Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Total Total Palatabilityb Relative Relative
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Intake Intake Intake Palatability
% of % of % of % of % of % of % of tons/acre average to Average to Average Winter
Smooth bromegrass season intakea season intake season intake season intake season intake season intake Trial Mean Total Intake Palatability Beta* Maturity Survival**
ALPHA 39 15 13 15 13 4 101 1.96 3.7 120% 112% -5.1 early 1
BADGER 33 8 16 23 16 4 110 1.69 3.9 104% 118% -3.3 1
BLIZZARD 16 33 15 24 11 . 129 2.16 3.4 133% 103% -1.9 late 1
BOUNTY 42 7 14 18 14 5 105 1.73 3.7 106% 112% -4.6 1
BW2 29 9 16 23 19 4 107 1.70 3.5 104% 106% -2.5 1
BW7 27 12 17 21 17 6 100 1.58 3.4 97% 103% -2.5 1
KYBI 9401 62 10 9 15 4 . 86 1.83 2.4 112% 73% -11.1 early 1
PEAK 31 19 36 14 . . 86 1.46 3.4 90% 103% -3.4 medium 1
TIKI 38 9 16 18 15 4 105 1.66 2.5 102% 76% -4.3 1
Average 35 14 17 19 14 5 103 1.75 3.3
a intake based on difference between before-graze and after-graze pasture plate measurements
bPALAT.=Palatability rating 0=0% grazed, 1=20%, 2=40%, 3=60%, 4=80%, 5=100% grazed. 
   Palatability of grasses under grazing is determined by visual estimation of percent defoliation of plots.
   The visual determination is made midway during mob grazing by beef cows of the grass plots for intake determination.
*A high beta means more consistent season-long intake; a more negative beta means higher percentage of intake in first grazing period.
**Winter Survival: 1=superior, 2= good, 3=average, 4=poor, 5=none
Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Total Total Palatabilityb Relative Relative
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Intake Intake Intake Palatability
% of % of % of % of % of % of % of tons/acre average to Average to Average Winter
Tall fescue season intakea season intake season intake season intake season intake season intake Trial Mean Total Intake Palatability Beta* Maturity Survival**
ARKPLUS 34 17 12 12 13 11 92 1.91 2.4 107% 109% -3.6 2
BAR FA 689K 29 10 13 17 19 11 86 1.17 1.3 66% 59% -1.7 2
BAR FA 6FRD 39 6 14 14 16 10 84 1.37 2.3 77% 105% -3.3 2
BARCEL 35 16 14 21 15 . 91 2.07 2.5 116% 114% -3.5 late 2
BAROLLEX 21 29 18 13 19 . 85 1.67 2.4 94% 109% -2.0 late 2
BE 9301 26 29 29 16 . . 84 1.42 2.1 80% 95% -3.0 2
BRONSON 18 23 26 16 16 . 85 1.51 2.2 85% 100% -1.1 early 1
COURTENAY 20 31 22 12 15 . 109 2.13 2.3 120% 105% -2.9 late 2
EF KY31 39 14 15 17 15 . 95 2.10 2.2 118% 100% -4.5 2
EI KY31 39 12 15 19 14 . 92 2.11 2.4 119% 109% -4.3 2
ENHANCE 33 18 12 13 12 13 93 1.93 2.2 108% 100% -3.3 medium 2
FA BTR1 28 11 17 17 16 12 76 1.21 3.2 68% 145% -1.9 2
FAWN 34 25 14 11 15 . 97 1.92 2.0 108% 91% -5.2 medium 2
K5666V 21 27 35 17 . . 76 1.28 2.1 72% 95% -0.4 2
KOKANEE 24 31 16 14 15 . 102 2.08 2.0 117% 91% -3.5 2
KORA 19 24 25 17 14 . 108 1.89 1.9 106% 86% -1.7 early 1
KY 31 28 19 17 12 15 8 90 1.84 2.3 103% 105% -3.3 early 1
KY-2 42 8 14 14 15 7 104 1.82 2.9 102% 132% -4.4 2
KYFA 9301 43 12 13 19 12 . 97 2.21 2.8 124% 127% -5.5 2
KYFA 9302 36 14 16 19 16 . 101 2.24 1.8 126% 82% -3.5 2
KYTF 2 35 14 16 20 14 . 101 2.27 2.5 128% 114% -3.6 2
MAX Q JESUP 34 27 14 12 14 . 88 1.75 2.3 98% 105% -5.5 2
MAXIMIZE 29 25 15 12 18 . 93 1.88 2.1 106% 95% -3.5 2
MONTENDRE 28 17 13 14 14 14 91 1.91 2.1 107% 95% -2.2 2
SEINE 16 27 25 15 16 . 84 1.48 1.4 83% 64% -1.2 medium-late 2
SELECT 30 23 18 14 15 . 90 1.76 2.1 99% 95% -3.9 medium-early 1
STOCKMAN 27 18 15 11 15 14 90 1.77 2.2 99% 100% -2.2 medium 2
TF 33 19 25 26 16 14 . 80 1.43 2.1 80% 95% -1.9 medium 1
Average 30 20 18 15 15 11 92 1.79 2.2
a intake based on difference between before-graze and after-graze pasture plate measurements
bPALAT.=Palatability rating 0=0% grazed, 1=20%, 2=40%, 3=60%, 4=80%, 5=100% grazed. 
   Palatability of grasses under grazing is determined by visual estimation of percent defoliation of plots.
   The visual determination is made midway during mob grazing by beef cows of the grass plots for intake determination.
*A high beta means more consistent season-long intake; a more negative beta means higher percentage of intake in first grazing period.
**Winter Survival: 1=superior, 2= good, 3=average, 4=poor, 5=none
Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Total Total Palatabilityb Relative Relative
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Intake Intake Intake Palatability
% of % of % of % of % of % of % of tons/acre average to Average to Average Winter
Timothy season intakea season intake season intake season intake season intake season intake Trial Mean Total Intake Palatability Beta* Maturity Survival**
CLAIR 30 13 20 16 15 6 112 1.78 2.5 83% 76% -3.4 early 2
CLASSIC 30 28 32 10 . . 107 1.87 3.8 87% 115% -5.6 medium 1
CLIMAX 31 14 16 18 15 7 94 1.58 3.2 74% 97% -3.3 early 2
COLT 28 13 20 17 15 7 114 1.77 2.7 83% 82% -2.9 late 2
CREST 31 22 6 18 13 10 91 1.99 3.5 93% 106% -3.4 late 1
DERBY 39 16 8 16 13 7 92 1.95 3.5 91% 106% -4.6 early 1
DP 91-3 33 10 16 17 18 7 96 1.55 3.4 72% 103% -3.0 1
ITASCA 19 33 19 17 11 . 122 2.39 2.2 112% 67% -3.2 medium-late 1
KY EARLY 57 9 14 14 6 . 119 2.89 3.2 135% 97% -9.7 1
RICHMOND 36 37 14 8 6 . 136 2.81 3.4 131% 103% -8.9 medium 2
SUMMIT 27 18 13 13 22 7 99 2.29 3.4 107% 103% -2.5 early 2
TM9701 25 27 28 12 8 . 104 3.84 3.3 179% 100% -4.9 1
TUNDRA 33 25 33 9 . . 100 1.70 3.7 79% 112% -6.4 late 1
TUUKKA 38 27 9 13 13 . 103 1.99 3.3 93% 100% -6.4 medium-late 1
WINNETOU 20 33 27 13 6 . 102 1.69 4.0 79% 121% -4.8 late 1
Average 32 22 18 14 12 7 106 2.14 3.3
a intake based on difference between before-graze and after-graze pasture plate measurements
bPALAT.=Palatability rating 0=0% grazed, 1=20%, 2=40%, 3=60%, 4=80%, 5=100% grazed. 
   Palatability of grasses under grazing is determined by visual estimation of percent defoliation of plots.
   The visual determination is made midway during mob grazing by beef cows of the grass plots for intake determination.
*A high beta means more consistent season-long intake; a more negative beta means higher percentage of intake in first grazing period.
**Winter Survival: 1=superior, 2= good, 3=average, 4=poor, 5=none
Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Total Total Palatabilityb Relative Relative
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Intake Intake Intake Palatability
% of % of % of % of % of % of % of tons/acre average to Average to Average Winter Rust Resistance
Festulolium season intakea season intake season intake season intake season intake season intake Trial Mean Total Intake Palatability Beta* Maturity Survival** Stem/Crown
AGULA 36 35 8 12 8 114 1.89 3.3 81% 106% -7.9 3
BONUS 19 36 6 24 11 3 113 3.65 3.1 157% 100% -3.9 medium 3 yes/.
DUO 22 47 12 8 10 . 89 1.73 3.6 74% 116% -6.3 medium 3 yes/.
FELINA 20 22 27 18 13 . 96 1.66 2.1 71% 68% -1.8 medium 3
GAIN 19 34 6 25 13 4 107 3.30 3.2 142% 103% -3.4 medium 3 yes/.
HYKOR 22 22 26 15 14 . 94 1.65 1.7 71% 55% -2.3 medium 3
KEMAL 37 20 9 24 10 . 117 2.59 4.1 111% 132% -5.0 3
MATRIX 25 39 12 12 13 78 1.34 3.0 58% 97% -5.1 medium-late 3 yes/.
SPRING GREEN 28 28 11 17 15 . 100 2.26 3.1 97% 100% -3.7 early 3 yes/yes
SPRING GREEN ORGANIC 16 23 9 28 24 . 73 2.67 2.9 115% 94% 2.1 early 3 yes/yes
TANDEM 42 17 10 17 14 . 124 2.84 3.7 122% 119% -5.6 3
Average 26 29 12 18 13 4 100 2.33 3.1
a intake based on difference between before-graze and after-graze pasture plate measurements
bPALAT.=Palatability rating 0=0% grazed, 1=20%, 2=40%, 3=60%, 4=80%, 5=100% grazed. 
   Palatability of grasses under grazing is determined by visual estimation of percent defoliation of plots.
   The visual determination is made midway during mob grazing by beef cows of the grass plots for intake determination.
*A high beta means more consistent season-long intake; a more negative beta means higher percentage of intake in first grazing period.
**Winter Survival: 1=superior, 2= good, 3=average, 4=poor, 5=none
Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Total Total Palatabilityb Relative Relative
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Intake Intake Intake Palatability
% of % of % of % of % of % of % of tons/acre average to Average to Average Winter Rust Resistance
Hybrid ryegrass season intakea season intake season intake season intake season intake season intake Trial Mean Total Intake Palatability Beta* Maturity Survival** Stem/Crown
ABER ECHO 35 37 12 8 9 102 1.77 3.5 107% 103% -8.1 4
ABEROSCAR 44 17 20 18 . 76 1.40 3.0 85% 88% -7.5 4
BESTFOR PLUS 33 48 9 4 6 102 1.79 3.6 108% 106% -9.8 medium 4 yes/.
Average 37 34 14 10 8 . 93 1.65 3.4
a intake based on difference between before-graze and after-graze pasture plate measurements
bPALAT.=Palatability rating 0=0% grazed, 1=20%, 2=40%, 3=60%, 4=80%, 5=100% grazed. 
   Palatability of grasses under grazing is determined by visual estimation of percent defoliation of plots.
   The visual determination is made midway during mob grazing by beef cows of the grass plots for intake determination.
*A high beta means more consistent season-long intake; a more negative beta means higher percentage of intake in first grazing period.
**Winter Survival: 1=superior, 2= good, 3=average, 4=poor, 5=none
Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Total Total Palatabilityb Relative Relative
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Intake Intake Intake Palatability
% of % of % of % of % of % of % of tons/acre average to Average to Average Winter Rust Resistance
Perennial ryegrass season intakea season intake season intake season intake season intake season intake Trial Mean Total Intake Palatability Beta* Maturity Survival** Stem/Crown
96-14 34 19 11 19 16 . 93 1.98 2.8 125% 88% -3.6 4
96-34 27 21 9 33 10 . 88 2.06 3.0 130% 94% -2.2 4
ABER AVON 16 30 14 14 10 16 96 1.36 3.1 86% 97% -1.7 late 4 yes/.
ABER CRAIG 16 32 14 16 9 13 88 1.37 3.2 86% 100% -2.3 late 4 .
ABER DART 20 27 15 14 10 14 97 1.37 2.8 86% 88% -2.3 medium 4 yes/.
ABERELAN 15 17 14 20 22 12 90 1.20 2.3 75% 72% 0.2 medium-early 4 .
ABEROSCAR 13 17 16 24 20 11 109 1.28 . 81% . 0.2 4
ANACONDA 12 42 24 9 12 . 76 1.33 4.1 84% 128% -3.3 medium 4 .
BAR LP 5129 26 23 10 29 12 . 83 1.88 3.4 118% 106% -2.2 4
BAR LP 7218 24 21 11 28 16 . 76 1.76 3.9 111% 122% -0.9 4
BAR LP 8BTR ESN 12 45 20 10 12 . 89 1.54 3.3 97% 103% -3.5 4
BAR LP BRA 27 14 13 17 16 13 71 1.21 2.6 76% 81% -1.7 medium-late 4 yes/.
BARISTRA 25 14 15 18 16 12 79 1.37 2.7 86% 84% -1.6 4
BARMACO 25 13 19 15 17 12 77 1.30 3.2 82% 100% -1.6 4
BARNHEM 13 30 28 13 16 . 73 1.30 3.6 82% 113% -1.1 4
BG 3 24 15 18 15 16 12 75 1.27 3.0 80% 94% -1.7 4
BOOST 14 37 27 8 13 . 114 4.18 3.4 263% 106% -3.1 medium 4 yes/.
CALIBRA 12 17 11 37 22 . 64 2.36 3.7 148% 116% 4.0 medium 4 .
CANASTA 25 14 15 16 18 12 86 1.46 3.0 92% 94% -1.5 medium 4 .
ELGON 20 39 16 8 17 . 77 1.50 3.3 94% 103% -3.7 medium-late 4 yes/.
FANDA 20 17 13 19 19 13 91 1.33 3.0 84% 94% -0.7 medium 4 .
GRAND DADDY 14 35 17 11 11 13 97 1.68 3.4 106% 106% -2.4 medium 4 .
HERBIE 19 39 19 7 16 . 77 1.50 3.2 94% 100% -3.8 late 4 .
MONGITA 23 38 13 8 18 . 78 1.50 3.2 94% 100% -4.0 medium-late 4 .
MOY 27 13 15 14 19 12 77 1.30 2.6 82% 81% -1.7 4
POWER 11 36 23 12 18 . 76 2.85 3.0 179% 94% -1.0 medium-late 4 .
RESPECT 29 26 11 16 9 9 99 1.72 3.1 108% 97% -4.2 medium 4 yes/.
TETRAPLUS 22 13 19 16 19 11 82 1.41 2.4 89% 75% -1.1 4
VERANO 10 22 33 15 20 . 74 2.70 3.9 170% 122% 1.3 medium 4 yes/.
Average 20 25 17 17 15 12 85 1.69 3.2
a intake based on difference between before-graze and after-graze pasture plate measurements
bPALAT.=Palatability rating 0=0% grazed, 1=20%, 2=40%, 3=60%, 4=80%, 5=100% grazed. 
   Palatability of grasses under grazing is determined by visual estimation of percent defoliation of plots.
   The visual determination is made midway during mob grazing by beef cows of the grass plots for intake determination.
*A high beta means more consistent season-long intake; a more negative beta means higher percentage of intake in first grazing period.
**Winter Survival: 1=superior, 2= good, 3=average, 4=poor, 5=none
Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Grazing Total Total Palatabilityb Relative Relative
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Period 5 Period 6 Intake Intake Intake Palatability
% of % of % of % of % of % of % of tons/acre average to Average to Average Winter
Reed canarygrass season intakea season intake season intake season intake season intake season intake Trial Mean Total Intake Palatability Beta* Maturity Survival**
LARA 27 29 32 12 . . 100 1.70 3.2 90% 100% -4.2 medium 1
MARATHON 22 21 24 13 15 5 101 2.06 3.1 110% 97% -3.3 medium 1
Average 25 25 28 13 15 5 101 1.88 3.2
a intake based on difference between before-graze and after-graze pasture plate measurements
bPALAT.=Palatability rating 0=0% grazed, 1=20%, 2=40%, 3=60%, 4=80%, 5=100% grazed. 
   Palatability of grasses under grazing is determined by visual estimation of percent defoliation of plots.
   The visual determination is made midway during mob grazing by beef cows of the grass plots for intake determination.
*A high beta means more consistent season-long intake; a more negative beta means higher percentage of intake in first grazing period.
**Winter Survival: 1=superior, 2= good, 3=average, 4=poor, 5=none