Please note that this information is current as of August 2019. Information and recommendations may change as the program evolves and we learn more about industrial hemp.
37:00 Crop insurance. They’ve gone to their local office and haven’t been able to get information on crop insurance and what is the protocol, if hemp is covered.
I would say you probably have been in the right place to ask about crop insurance. I think it’s probably going to take a while for crop insurance be available. I have been on some panels with insurance representatives who have talked about crop insurance and I know at least I believe at least one insurance group that insures farms and farming said that they would if the barn burned they would insure the barn but they would not insure the hemp crop right now. There’s that kind of, if you’re already involved in farming they still are gonna provide insurance. If you had a combine and the combine burned up while harvesting hemp, they would insure the combine but not they hemp crop. I think insurance is going to take a while because what I have heard from insurance groups is that they still need a value. They need a crop value. For corn and soybeans they have crop values, they know they know what those crops are worth. For hemp they don’t really have a standardized value and so that’s it’s just going to take time. It’s going to come but it will take time. It may not be this year but it will come eventually. And this is a problem with alternative crops, there’s limited insurance options. Not just hemp. Right.
39:03 Potentially looking at growing in 2020, the question is should we get a license now preparation for next growing season, or should we wait?
You have to wait now because our licensing period ended on March 1st, so you will need to wait and so probably this fall. You know a year ago for 2019 our licensing registration period opened on November 1st of 2018. I’m not a hundred percent sure what our timeline is but it will be late fall that we would open the licensing process. You need to wait now until later this year to apply for a license for 2020.
39:59 Can we get a copy of the THC/CBD testing results by varieties and harvest from 2018?
Yes. This one’s on me. I do need to put on an annual report and include all those test results and I just haven’t had time to do that. I’m hoping in the next couple of weeks to just get those out so you can see what all the test results are. Once I get those out that will be on our website so you’ll be able to see that information.
40:38 After you get and approve a commerce certificate, how long does the grower have to harvest the crop?
Ideally we would like that harvested within ten days of when you get your certificate and the THC content continues to go up. What you need to know is that THC content is going to continue to go up and we’re going to issue the certificate. If you wait a long time to harvest that the THC is going up considerably, once you harvest that crop and it goes to retail or processing or wherever it goes, if law enforcement comes in and they take a sample of that and they have it tested and it’s about 0.3% you could still lose that crop. It’s to your advantage to harvest as soon as possible once we test as well.
41:40 If you start your plants in a greenhouse and transplant to a field, do you have to do both planting reports?
That’s a good question. I would say no. I would say you would want to put on your field planting report that you started it in a greenhouse and you do want your coordinates of the greenhouse. Just because if anyone reports you or anything and law enforcement comes by and then that’s not you know an approved location. So you want to make sure you have the location approved. You would say on your report you know just starting seeds in this greenhouse at this location.
42:27 I found the reporting site very cumbersome, will be improved?
Yes. Keep in mind we have been very short staffed. With me coming on board, yeah I’m gonna try and clean that up make it very user friendly. Yeah so please thank you. Be patient, it’ll come.
42:50 If you haven’t registered for that year, do you have to support submit a report by July 1st?
I would say yes, because there’s an option on there that says did not grow. But if you didn’t register to grow, we wouldn’t expect a report. If you only got a license but you didn’t register to grow, we would not expect your report.
43:15 Can I get contact info on private labs for testing?
If you email the DATCP hemp email address and request that, we can send you the names of the labs that we are aware of. Is that a possibility of putting that together on an extension website, for resource? Yes. I thought was something that we could work on between us.
43:44 Will this presentation be available as a PDF or a PowerPoint?
We could do that. We could also put that on the website. So yes, thank you for that point.
43:53 If we use starts that are 25 days old at planting, is it 30 days after planted in field or 30 days after seeds are germinated?
It would be 30 days after planted in the field. We want; it applies to the harvest location so once it’s planted in the field that’s when we would want your report.
44:17 Do you have the resources available to connect us with buyers?
No we do not unfortunately.
44:24 Of those tested samples how many that failed were C4?
I don’t directly have, I don’t have that answer for you right now.
44:37 Does the hemp 2.0 bill contain legislation to bump the THC limits to 0.7 or 1.0? Is it likely?
No and the just to the 0.3 percent THC is a federal, this is under federal law. So we are being compliant with federal law. We do have a provision, the provision that we have is if it’s point above 0.3 but at 1% or below it’s not considered a law enforcement action. If you have hemp that’s in between those percentages it’s not considered actionable under law enforcement. So that’s something now that we work with you on. If it’s over 1% it is, it could be considered an action by law enforcement, just so you know.
45:33 Would I need two tests for the same strain with some are grown in the greenhouse and some are grown in the field, that’s still the same strain?
Yes you would and those are likely to be at different THC percentages, I’ll tell you that.
45:47 How do you account for the degradation of THC once it’s been cut? You would have a plant that cut at 0.4 but grades below the limit in the sun for a day.
We don’t account for that.
46:01 When testing the types of the plant you are taking the highest localized average THC content, most of the plants well below. Why did you opt for this testing the tops over a whole plant average?
Because we want the highest THC content that’s in that plant and that does and this is true for all the states in this program so this is very standardized constance.
46:23 We plan to start in the greenhouse and transplant and grow additional plants in the greenhouse. I would assume we need both in this case?
You need both tested.
46:34 Do you know when banks will be able to give us loans?
I don’t. I do know that some banks are giving loans and in my understanding is some of the credit unions are probably more likely to give loans than the traditional banks. The Wisconsin Banking Association is probably going to come online a little bit later. There are loans being available and I think that if you’re growing hemp you’re more likely to get a loan. If you have a vape shop, you’re less likely to get a loan.
47:10 Testing for strain? $250 per strain for plot? Can you go into more detail? Testing for strain, question mark?
Well strain for us equals variety. So we are taking the top two inches plants, we’re testing for the THC content. It needs to be at or below point three percent. And when we say 0.3% we’re rounding down so it could be point three nine nine percent and we’re still going to call it point three percent, so that’s the most variability that we can give. Beyond that I’m not sure. What they might be asking is each cultivar has to be tested. Oh, so each cultivar, each variety, each strain, for me cultivar and variety and strain are all the same thing. And so yes each one must have its own test.
48:08 Is there a 2018 summary for the hemp program that will be made available?
There will be. Just due to staffing restrictions we just haven’t had time to get that out. And we will put it on our website. Okay thanks. And we can try to link to it once we have an extension site up and running.
48:27 Hail insurance.
I guess there is hail insurance available that covers industrial comp at up to $8,000 per acre.
48:36 Is there a way to still get a license even after the March cut off?
No. Not for this year.
48:41 How long before sampling takes place and notification?
We need from the growers. We want 30 days notification so that we have so that we can schedule the workload. There’s going to be a lot of sampling. We’ve already been collecting samples this year from greenhouses.
49:04 Are there limits in the distance between hemp fields under one license holder? I have fields that will be planted across at least two counties.
No. There are no limits.
49:15 What are the laws regarding transporting a harvested crop?
We do not have laws that really apply to that. Our laws apply to the crop, primarily to the crop being grown. So once we issue a fit for commerce certificate you can transport that crop. You cannot transport it until we have given you a fit for commerce certificate to do so. Then you would be out of compliance with our program. But once we issue that you can transport your crop and wherever you want to transport it.
49:54 What determines the 3 percent THC rate? How is it decided that would be the level and why has the number of growers increased by 6 to 7 times as opposed to previous years?
The THC level, how this number was arrived at, I do not know. This is federal law and so I’m not sure how they arrived at this number. It is somewhat arbitrary, actually. Why 0.3 percent, I do not know the answer to that and what was the second? Well this is only the second year. Yes, this is only the second year. This is based on people’s interest, we have no control over that. The 0.3 percent is an arbitrary number and it was what was in the 2014 farm bill is what was used to differentiate industrial hemp from marijuana and cannabis and it was an arbitrary number. Very low obviously. Yeah and then and for the interest the second year but also the 2018 federal farm bill probably has impacted that.
51:03 Greenhouses, is there a certain size requirement?
There is not but we do we want a minimum of 15 plants at harvest time so that we can get enough material to test. If you only have two or four plants, we might end up taking your whole crop just to be able to get test results.
51:25 Can I grow variety that’s not on your approved list?
You can. We would like to approve that. We’d like to know what that variety is and so we would like you to send an email to our DATCP email and say I want to plant this variety and hopefully you have the test results from the crop that seed came from. Then we can look at that. We want your crops to pass the THC test and we have had people ask if they could plant a variety that the crop had already tested over point three percent. We want you to succeed so this is this is why we want to see what it is you want.
52:08 Are there considerations to restrict the use of dangerous pesticides and highly polluting industrial practices in hemp?
There are currently no pesticides allowed for use on hemp. Hemp is a bio accumulator too. So what’s in the soil it’s probably going to take up, so there are no tolerances for hemp that’s going to be used for food. No pesticide tolerances. And I think Rodrigo, maybe when we get into the UW section, I need to touch on what might get done evaluating.
52:47 For testing purposes how do you treat breeding populations? How will you support small and independent farmer breeders?
Well anything that’s being harvested and being sold we have to test. We have a situation where people are growing mother plants that then they want to sell the clones of. If you’re not harvesting something and it’s not going into a stream, a commercial stream, we don’t necessarily need to test it but we do still need all the licenses and permits and everything and we may come out and do some inspections.
53:27 Someone’s pushing back on your pesticide comment. That there’s a list of approved pesticide on your website.
There’s a list of like organic, yeah organic pesticides, so but and that is on our website but it’s really limited.
53:50 What is the time frame expected to receive test results once the testing has been done?
Our lab allows for two-week turnaround time. We last year once we got up and running the test results for the most part came back a lot quicker than that. They have said that they won’t guarantee anything less than two weeks.
54:20 Does DATCP need a copy of my seed/clone certification before I plant?
Oh, like a seed purchase order? We don’t do that. Okay and the seeds don’t have to be certified, just that they are recommended to be.
54:42 If you take clones from a crop that past testing, will those clones have to be tested even though they have the exact same genetics as the approved?
Once those plants are growing you do need to come and test. The THC content can be highly variable depending on the inputs and conditions grown so there’s no guarantee that what your growing will pass.
55:09 Are there requirements for soil testing prior to planting?
No. And if that’s a nutrient management question that will be touched on a little bit later by Rodrigo as well because we’ll be trying to develop nutrient management recommendations.
55:26 Number of days that we come out to test until we receive the results?
It’s somewhat variable, so we’ll take the samples back directly to our lab. They have a two-week turnaround time and then they get the results to us and then we get the results to you. This year I think things will be more efficient than last year. Last year we had no staff and so and we were doing a sampling too so we couldn’t be everywhere. I think we’ll be more efficient than we were last year but can’t give you a guarantee on number of days right now.
56:07 How many days after you take the samples do we have to harvest?
This was asked earlier but within that 10 day.
56:17 Isn’t the actual limit on point three nine nine nine, not point three?
No, it’s 0.3%. It’s just rounded down. We have 30 acres.
56:45 Do we get the two inches of plants that you tested back?
56:56 Can a license grower rent land for growing from someone else?
57:00 If a grower has two adjacent greenhouses or adjacent fields, how is that going to be tested?
Let’s say grower has two fields and there a half mile part, I assume those are. Those are two separate. If the fields are right next to each other. The inspector has a lot of discretion because they’re out there looking at the actual situation. We don’t want to charge people more than we have to. If they’re right next to each other it’s the same variety. They look the same, we might do one test but we asked the grower, we could do one test or we could do two tests. We do one test and it fails, you have to destroy everything. We do two tests if there’s any reason if you put more fertilizer on one than the other one you might have different results.
58:00 Is there a way to electronically sign forms to reply by email or do they have to be signed and scanned?
I think you use the PDF option. I guess that’s something that we will have to discuss further.
58:18 Am I able to amend my growing location for only a field to a field and an indoor grow? Outdoor being hemp for seed and indoor being a CBD variety?
Yes, as long as the indoor is not your residence. We don’t allow residential growing so if it’s in a greenhouse or an indoor grow facility that’s fine. We just we need the GPS coordinates for those locations.
58:45 As a grower do I need to take it upon myself to preemptively notify my county law enforcement or will DATCP do that?
No, absolutely. Take it upon yourself, get in touch with your local representatives or your local law enforcement agencies, your neighbors, anybody that you think will be concerned with the hemp process.
50:26 Besides strain selection and regular testing, what are other ways to prevent the plants from going hot?
Any nutrients or cultural practices to apply at certain times? Yeah so in general all the different genetics have the potential to go hot. You don’t want to over feed the plants, especially you know phosphorus and potassium later on in the plants growth stage. We talked about the nutrient needs of these plants, which can be high, but you have to keep in mind the more you feed them the more cannabinoids they’re going to produce. There’s really a happy medium there and I would err on the side of caution. We’re not planning on feeding our plants very little to none because we want to be cautious with approaching those THC thresholds.
51:27 Did any hemp growers last year have problems with theft or security breaches?
If so, what are the context and any good ideas for security measures? I don’t know about Wisconsin. In Indiana we had some theft and they were caught. But that doesn’t affect your plants. Signs that say they are being monitored, and this goes back to just in general but contacting your local authorities so they know that you are growing and can kind of be monitoring the area more closely. Yeah. Other thing you know, I think it was kind of in limited cases in Wisconsin and I know some cases in Colorado but you can also do a cover crop with sunflowers to kind of obscure your crop or be smart about where you’re planting it. Pick your location well. Put signage up you know, maybe a little synopsis that says this is this is industrial hemp it’s not going to get you high. I think that’ll deter people from stealing your crop. There are a lot of things you can do. In my opinion it’s not a huge concern, especially if you’re planting acreage. I mean how much of your crop can somebody get away with in the back of Subaru or pickup truck or whatever. It can’t be significant, but be smart about it. I don’t see it being a huge issue. We are taping it in Madison.
53:11 Do you have any correlation to dry matter and CBD content by planting date?
I think he’s referring to the planting dates and flower production and I don’t know. I think maybe what he’s getting at is these are photos period plants. They are going to start maturing based on the length of day. Whether you plant the plant in you know the middle of July, in general they’re going to start flowering mid to late August and they’re going to take you know 60 days to reach full maturity. If you plant the plant June 1, it’s going to have a lot of a lot longer vegetative phase and get a lot bigger and then therefore the middle of August, end of August when it starts flowering it’s going to be able to produce a lot more. That same strain you can plant the middle of July and then it’ll start flowering you know at the same time but it’s going to be a little bitty plant and you won’t get as much yield off of it. I don’t know if that answered that question or not. Good effort.
54:30 Planting in clover. Planting in clover in spring when to plant the clover, what type, how soon after do you transplant the seedlings, do you clear the area for the transplants, do you mow the clover?
I recommend getting the clover established before you transplant otherwise it’s not going to create any kind of weed protection for you. Red clover is kind of I think what’s been used generally. Yes you would clear the field, plant your clover, get it established and then transplant into it and you can mow the clover throughout the season. I would agree with that. Yeah you know or a white clover you plant, let it get established and then plant your little starts, your little clones or your seeds or your seedlings.
55:28 Is anyone using organic fertilizers like worm castings either while planting the seed or when transplanting?
55:37 Please provide words of caution for tight spacing used in drier climates. That is very risky here, mold is much more likely to form in tight spacing than from straw mulch.
Absolutely. Can I elaborate on that quick? As far as a CBD grower would not be concerned with yield of you know biomass, of sellable product. I would be concerned with pests and mold and the THC threshold. These are just kind of cautionary tales. Speaking to that point I would absolutely you know err on the side of caution with your row spacing and your plant spacing, as opposed to keeping things too close together and running into potential problems with mold or other pests.
56:28 What is the cost of un-feminized seed compared to feminized?
Feminized seed is considerably more expensive. There’s really not a standard, so I’d hesitate to name an actual price on both but feminized seeds quite a bit more expensive. Approximately twice as much, maybe a little bit more than twice as much. If you get regular seeds then got to cull out 50% of your males, that it ends up being more or less a horse a piece.
57:04 Is there a specific disposal recommendations for pruning and or trimming?
That’s a good question. I think generally burning is thought general disposal. Sure.
57:17 What is better white plastic or black plastic?
I have more thoughts on that. One of the things that can boost THC is heat. Yeah. In so, black plastic is going to be a lot hotter, so potentially white plastic is something I’d consider. I’d recommend white plastic.
57:40 My land currently does not have a well for water source, should I put one in for watering purposes? I don’t think that it would be useful. I don’t think it’s necessary and I just speak from the plastic a little bit you know you need to be really careful. These plants do need you know relatively regular watering but you have to be really careful with holding too much water in the soil. We talked about botrytis and other pests and diseases related to the humidity levels and the water levels here, keeping the roots too wet, too long it’s the worst thing you can do for these for these cannabis plants. They will drown if they don’t get good oxygen to the roots. Be very careful with putting plastic and over watering these plants.
58:32 I’ve had a clover crop planted in my one acre fields for five years. What’s the best way to prepare for planting? Mowing, tilling, no tilling or other?
Depends on a lot of factors. It depends on your capabilities, your equipment. A no-till situation in my opinion would be fine, especially with that clover being established like it has been. I think that’s your best option we’re not promoting future weed growth and competition with your plant. You got a good a good cover crop there I wouldn’t disturb it too much.
59:19 What is the smaller is better for cell size based on? I’ve seen 50 cell, 98 cell, even 3.5 pots do super well. It has to do with conditions when you transplant and how well you harden off.
Yes, I think that’s true in how you harden off and condition of transplant for sure. The idea being that if you’re taking a big plant and switching how it’s been living, it has a harder time revving back up to where it needs to be and acclimating to what you’ve just done to it. If it’s a small plants generally are able to acclimate faster and better.
59:55 Deep cells on the trays, how deep? Four inches?
Are they asking about how deep to plant the cells maybe? I read it as is, so I’m not sure. Deep cells on the tray question mark. How deep, four inches question mark. Typically these trays are more or less a standard depth. There’s a little deviation but I think maybe the questions asking about how deep to plant the rooted seedling or clone. They need to be well seeded in the ground. Other than that you just want to cover, you want to cover the existing root, the existing root ball with a little bit of medium and make sure seen it is seeded in there firmly. I also did put deep cell next to that which may be the confusion. I know that 144 they are regular kind of the same depth. Things like in the horticulture industry, things like christmas trees that have these deep cells that allow for that tap root, those are useable. One more and then we will switch to Rodrigo.
1:01:01 Hardening the seedings? I heard in the direct sunlight for 8 hours. Why the shade? Confused.
Okay, so if you’re getting your seedlings or your clones from an indoor facility there’s going to be a pretty serious and a pretty extensive hardening process you need to be really careful with. You do not want to take those plants from an indoor situation and put them right outside in direct sunlight. They will shrivel up and die. It depends on where the plants have come from and it depends on a lot of different factors. To what extent have they already been hardened? Were they grown in a greenhouse under shade cloth or a greenhouse you know with direct sun? So really from whatever situation they were in you want to go slow and slowly introduce these plants to the natural elements. That being wind and sun mainly and then temperature swings. If they’re in a greenhouse or indoor situation they’re going to have a more constant temperature between day and night. You need a slowly acclimate up to that as well. It’s all relative to where the plants come from but you do not want to take plants and just put them directly outside. That’s why they put them under the shade cloth first to slowly acclimate them to the intensity of sun.
Grain and Fiber Session
47:55 There were a couple of comments to termination of winter rye ten days prior to a heavy feeding feeder would be cutting it pretty close and result in significant end tie up so suggesting you may need to terminate rye a little bit earlier.
Yeah, I would agree with that.
48:28 This kind of production could severely impact the CBD market. Kind of scary knowing it could be next door to your CBD and cross pollinate and ruin your crops.
That’s going to get talked about in the CBD hour.
48:52 Are you or other contractors looking for fiber or seed farmers for contract? If yes, how do we connect with them?
Yeah we are looking for additional grain farmers for this season in 2019 and anybody looking to work whether they want to just simply buy seed or purchase seed and sell their grain back they can go to our website legacyhemp.com.
49:20 So economics of grain production, that probably the top question you get asked. Any comments on that?
I could go through quickly. Some of the more fixed costs that we have associated with this crop and farmers will need to plug in their own variable cost but as far as the seeding cost goes, we are recommending 30 pounds per acre as a seeding rate. Our seed is priced at $4 per pound which comes to a price of a hundred and twenty dollars per acre. The fertility costs conventionally will likely be in that 80 to a hundred and twenty dollars per acre with organic production. Likely higher than that, somewhere in that hundred and fifty possibly upwards of two hundred pounds per acre with really trying to apply all the nitrogen as a purchase source. In addition to that we’re going to have a cleaning cost, where the farmers will have a cleaning cost. Likely two cleanings. One prior to going into the grain bin to be aerated and dried and then one just prior to shipping to the processor. That cost will likely be somewhere in the neighborhood of $80 per acre. That that total brings us roughly in that 300 to 350 dollars per acre with the fixed cost specific to hemp. From there we’ll be for each farmer will need to add in their own land cost, a fuel, labor, etc. for the total cost of inputs as they relate to each specific farm. In regard to what kind of gross profits they could expect. Conventional crops generally have been yielding in that twelve to fourteen hundred pounds per acre while the organic crops are using more in that six to eight hundred pounds per acre. Currently for the 2019 growing season we’re offering contracts at fifty five cents per pound for conventional production and a dollar twenty per pound for certified organic. You should be able to work those numbers out for your own farm and figure out where you are net profit wise.
51:56 Is there a limit to how many years you can plant hemp in one field?
There’s no limit as far as legality is concerned but as far as agronomics I certainly wouldn’t look at planting this crop more than two years in a row on the same field. We just we don’t know what all diseases, insects and other pests we’re going to encounter with this new crop. The more we mono crop on the same field year after year, the more likely we’re going to have pest problems start showing up.
52:39 Have there been studies on hemp roots breaking up the subsoil hard pan? Please comment on soil aeration in heavy soils if possible.
I have not seen many studies for using this crop as a means to break through the hard pan with compacted soils. It will be a crop that will identify compacted areas which kind of signals to me that it’s not likely making its way through those compacted layers. I would use some other source like a tillage radish or some other means to take care of your hard pan.
53:25 Short days of less than 10 hours per night had to be required. Daylight length less than 14 hours to not occur until mid-August in southern Wisconsin and on that date is 6.5 hours of night dark. Is there a variety flexibility for day length response?
Each variety is a little specific to this but they all generally will start flowering once the days start getting shorter because this plant recognizes that for every day that it’s sitting out in the ground after planting, the days are getting longer. Until that summer solstice occurs the days will start getting shorter so the plant will recognize this and the further south you go the longer it likely take to recognize this. Just simply the fact that our days are getting shorter will start to initiate flowering.
54:30 If you’re planting on a field that has been in winter wheat, is it necessary to remove the wheat before planting?
That’s a good question. As far as grain production is concerned, almost all of this crop at this time is being sold on the food grade market. In fact there is no animal feed market at this time, it’s still illegal to feed this crop to livestock. The only market being food grade, most of these processors are selling this crop is gluten-free which means that we do not want to have wheat still standing in the field prior to hemp production. For those who are utilizing wheat in the rotation, just be sure that the combines and augers are well cleaned prior to combining harvesting your hemp crop.
55:28 Does your planting date that you gave refer to seeds or seedlings?
The planting date refers to seeds.
55:36 What are the spacings between growing plants within a row for seed oil production?
Hemp has generally approximately twenty five thousand seeds per pound and we’re planting at a rate of about thirty pounds per acre for grain. That gives us somewhere in the neighborhood of 600 to 900 thousand plants per acre. Row spacing will generally be with a grain drill around seven and a half inches between rows. If we’re using a planter we can use 15 inch rows, 22 inch rows or 30 inch rows. I think we’ll find we are doing some studies across the country on row spacing this year, I think we’ll find a 15 inch row spacing for grain production will be ideal. Row spacing for a fiber crop should be more narrow into the seven and a half, just because we want to encourage this rapid growth in tall plants.
56:53 Where do you get dryers for this crop?
Again we don’t want to run this through a grain dryer. We do not really want to apply heat. If we apply heat it needs to be less than 100 degrees or less. Preferably we simply put the rain into a grain bin and turn the air fans on and let it dry with simply forced air with aeration.
57:20 Can you provide the research on nutrient cycling and phyto remediation?
As an annual plant, not sure how you’re going to improve soil structure and soil tilth unless you can work this into a no-till system. This is a good point. This is also the argument some cover crops. We use tillage radish and other crops too. For example buckwheat, buckwheat is a very great plant that’s cycling nutrients in the soil. It’s an annual crop. There is nutrient cycling that happens even with annual crops as well.
58:01 What kind of processing facilities are in the state that are aware of?
Processing facilities in Wisconsin for grain and fiber at this point in time I am not aware of any. Most of the processors are just simply handlers of this crop, meaning that they’re storing this crop for others. Whether it be a central location for farmers to bring their grain to or something to that effect. Nobody that I’m aware of in Wisconsin is actually processing grain or fiber.
58:38 What is the animal feed legislation for industrial hemp?
Well Melody might be able to talk about this a little bit more but this crop has to go through what is called the generally recognized as safe feeding study program. The FDA requires this or any new feed ingredient. It has nothing to do with the fact that hemp is hemp. It’s just simply that it’s a new feed ingredient.
59:07 Are there varieties that are less susceptible to mold that Legacy will be offering this year?
At this current time we are only offering one particular variety. However we are working with a couple different universities, University of Illinois, possibly Purdue University and we’ll hear what’s going on with Wisconsin here, they are doing a disease susceptibility variety trial with these other states. We will have more information on that next season.
59:38 Somebody would like contact information for your company. I’m sure we can provide that.
Research Updates/Q&A Session
24:52 If I were to contract with a local professional greenhouse to start my hemp seedlings before transplanting them, would the farmer need to have a grower license even though the scope of what they are doing is literally is just starting the plants for the first few weeks of life?
25:12 If I can grow seed/clone at my residence but outside in the field can I grow them in an outbuilding on my property year-round to full-term?
Yes, you just can’t grow it in your house.
25:32 Are deer a concern?
25:48 How far will hemp pollen drift? Curious of pollen from native ditch weed or neighboring fields will affect my feminized CBD plants?
Yeah so that’s also another study we hope to do at the UW is to look at some genetic gene flow studies to see because with wind pollination we mentioned it might be in the tens to hundreds of meters. Once you get insects in the mix they can start traveling you know a mile away. It’s just going to be how far that pollen can flow as well as what the frequency of that flow is. We hope to conduct some of those studies but I would say you know somewhere between 100 meters and a mile, then try to keep it at least a mile away.
26:30 I’m concerned about that you need to have a distance between CBD and fiber so shouldn’t there be a strategy in licenses to try to keep people a greater distance?
Canada actually they have kind of grassroot meetings where growers come together and determine who is growing, in what and where. But it’s not, even in Canada where there doing it’s not the directive of the government. Growers need to work this out. There are problems with other crops too and there are no laws for this. It needs to be good neighbor relations. The thing I’ve mentioned is I know it’s not possible now with the current law but just by allowing farmers to have an idea of where other growers are at in proximity to their operation will be extremely helpful. Because it will get to that point where neighbors will be able to talk to neighbors about this problem. Right now we have the privacy issue with the law currently written so once that changes I think we’ll have better opportunities for people to talk to each other.
27:49 Is there a map available for where everyone is at this point.
The privacy laws don’t allow you to share. Even to advertise this meeting we have to give the information to the Department of Ag and they have to share it.
28:04 For testing purposes, how will you treat breeding populations? How will you support small and independent farmer breeders?
We answered that already. Sorry about that.
28:16 Are there any reports or information on the economics of growing hemp in Wisconsin?
Brian did a quick rundown of the economics of grain production. There was a question there about CBD, which we didn’t get to. Yeah as far as CBD, you know it’s still so new and there’s getting to be pretty decent data kind of nationwide. I don’t know any good sources of Wisconsin specific data but you can find some industry data on the Internet. It really hasn’t leveled out or kind of streamlined. It’s still pretty kind of volatile situation.
29:00 Average return per acre on this production?
That was asked at 10:00 a.m. which would have been during the grain, which I think you went through that.
29:12 Will DATCP support exclusion zones to separate CBD and grain hemp regions most conducive to each crop? They are absolutely not compatible, the pollen will ruin so we need exclusion zones.
Gets back to the same issue we already talked about.
29:30 Will DATCP require Bio State greenhouse production of medical marijuana if approved by the legislature to separate, to protect cross-pollination?
We can’t talk about any laws that don’t exist yet.
29:50 Do you suggest drip tape or black plastic mulch or not? Oh drip tape with black plastic mulch or not? It really depends on your situation. It’s not a bad way to go, I’ll say that. With the black plastic mulch you can hold water in the soil better but you also don’t have, you have less access potentially to some of the rainfall I guess. So it depends how much rainfall you’re getting.
30:26 If you’re using a like a living mulch like a clover and you’re mowing it, is it safe the trimmings are hitting the plants or is that cause problems?
30:40 Do you see the CBD hemp market growing primarily indoors over the coming years?
30:53 Lots of clay in Wisconsin, any further suggestions? For example, we have a fair amount of clay. It is tiled and planted on higher spots. We plan to use black plastic. Any thoughts on that?
I would be careful of over watering situation. In my mind a sandy loam, a good draining soil is ideal. So if you’ve got a heavy clay, I wouldn’t be reluctant to also put plastic down, just as a general theme but I’d have to look into further.
31:30 Do you recommend foliar water applications using supplement nutrients like zinc, manganese, iron, copper, boron? Flower growers spray leaves for absorbing, injecting a 535 liquid fertilizer into drip line flowering will preempted flower and preserve water?
Sure I mean I know some, I don’t know growers individually, I know that particularly in like high production situations growers will spray foliar applications for nutrients as well as then fertigation talked about with the drip tape. I don’t know simply it’s cannabis, hemp leaves take nutrients. I mean they’re like any other leaf so kind of the basic biological principles apply. That’s kind of as much answer as I have which is I know it happens. I don’t know that it’s necessary. Yeah I would say that it’s probably not necessary. And I think of fertigation is more efficient than a foliar. That goes with over the top pivot you know type watering as well. I mean you’re watering a lot of ground that doesn’t have a plant right there. Just in general I think you know drip irrigation would be more efficient and just as we addressed earlier be really careful with over feeding your plants. You know speaking in terms of that THC threshold situation.
33:04 Is it okay to start the plants in cups versus the planters? We have 16 ounce cups and we’ll have holes in them for the water to be able to flow out.
Yeah that’s fine if you have the capability of planting those efficiently into the ground.
33:20 How can I get involved in the UW industrial hemp variety trials for grain and fiber?
Providing seeds or hosting a site. That’s just sending us an email. You can probably start with your county Extension educator and contact your County Extension office and see if they are interested in working with you to get a hold of Rodrigo and initiate a site.
33:43 Rodrigo, if you were doing a CBD crop how would you personally handle weed control? Say 10 acres total, plastic, cover crop, etc. thanks.
I would start with the cover crops and that would be my start. You know we talking 10 acres here so personally that’s how I would start. The one thing is somebody asks about terminating the cover crop, I think you would just terminate it on the seed back right and then leave the rest just mow it accordingly and timely.
34:22 In regard to outdoor growing in major ag areas, was there any issues with chemical drift violation? ie Dicamba. This year, was there any Dicamba drift this year?
We didn’t see any. So overall I don’t think we had as many instances of Dicamba target movement as other states have. As we grow more and as we use more Dicamba, it goes back to the communication. Talk to your neighbors, if you have farmers that are going to be using Dicamba right by systems that are sensitive, that communication of extreme importance. It’s all on the labels. But hemp would be susceptible to Dicamba. Yes, absolutely.
35:05 Can I grow CBD hemp indoors in a garage on a property in a residential area as long as I’m not flowering it in the house/residence?
Yeah as long as you’re not growing it in your house, you could grow it in a garage. Garages are okay.
35:39 We have 30 acres, should we plant all of it? It has been in alfalfa for seven years with a tenant. Do we have to crush the ground to plant hemp?
Yeah, you can do a no-till situation. The question of whether you should plant all of it or not, you just really have to understand the requirements, the inputs that are required and the money required to get started. That’s a really long answer. You need to have a really good understanding of what it’s going to take. If you if you haven’t done it before, I would recommend starting smaller than that.
36:18 As a licensed grower I understand that I am allowed to process my own crop. What exactly is considered processing that can be done on our farm? Does everything ranging from dehydrating my plants and trimming the flowers, all the way to making extractions or body lotions or tea blends count as processing?
Yes. Yes. You need a processing fee to do it. Or license. Not your own. We do say that what we’ve been saying is harvesting, drying is part of the growing process. Anything after that becomes processing. And you need to be aware that there are other laws that may apply to products that you develop so you have responsibilities for finding out what those are. Right.
37:07 What are the largest square bales of fiber being marketed and what are they being used for?
Typically there are three by three by eight square bales and as of right now most have been for the fiber. However there’s a company in Kentucky as well as South Carolina using the bass fibers. I don’t know what they’re using it for though.
37:37 What do you think about planting CBD hemp into a no-till corn field 4×4 spacing?
Corn is a high nutrient feeder, so what nutrients do you have left in the soil? As well as are you going to be covering it on the other way? If you’ve taken all of the corn silage.
38:04 What evidence exists for hot testing from over fertilization versus waiting too long harvest? I am very skeptical about this. What you are essentially saying is that certain fertility practices will tighten the peaks between CBD and THC maximums, which doesn’t make sense because CBD is a CBD isn’t a precursor to THC.
My understanding is that CBD isn’t a precursor to THC, these are two independent things. As far as the part about what over fertilization versus waiting too long to harvest, so increased fertilization is going to increase cannabinoid production which will increase CBD and THC earlier in that plants life. Which will you know make your plans potentially test hot earlier in their lives but they also produce cannabinoids and as they reach their final stages of maturity they’re gonna have more CBD and THC so they can test hot. CBD and THC are different things. Potentially also they’re referring to the fact that, I think you’re right, that CBD and THC peak, but they peak slightly differently. But they’re not related. CBD would peak a little bit earlier before the peak of THC. Yeah, the waiting may be like oh it’s if you wait too long THC will then increase. But it’s not – that can happen from fertilization. But it’s not because CBD has peaked, that’s not what THC is. It’s how the plant works. Right. Right.
40:01 Can we start plants in our house?
40:05 How is THC determined in 2018?
It was the Delta 9, if the equation you have there the Delta 9 THC plus the THC-A times the conversion factor, 0.877.
40:28 Do we need the coordinates for our drying location as well?
I would say yes. Yes.
40:35 If I bought seed from a friend who had extra, who is part of a very successful hemp operation in Colorado who did buy those originally from a licensed grower on your site, am I still able to use those seeds for planting?
I don’t see why not. Yes is the answer.
41:11 Is the total THC test method a compendial test method?
What is compendial? We have a stumper. Yeah I don’t know. It’s done by high performance liquid chromatography that separates the eight major cannabinoids and then it’s an area under the curve that calculates the ratio. HPLC is testing for the THC plus THC-A times conversion factor.
41:46 Hey what is the time period from sample collection testing and issuing a report?
The sample collection, with a sample statements taken directly to the lab. The lab has an allowance of a two-week time period and the students they issues the report to us. We get that report out within a day or two. All right.
42:18 Our greenhouse and field are within the same GPS coordinates, so we should be good right?
As long it’s listed on there like so.
42:29 Will you notify growers, processors when you publish new information? Such as the recorded test results from last year.
We will work on that, yes.
42:39 What are the minimum number of plants that need to be tested for CBD?
We want growers to have at least 15 plants available for testing and fewer plants than that and the plants are really small, we have trouble sometimes getting enough material to test. We’re requiring at least 15 plants available for testing.
43:05 Will you need a separate test for each greenhouse plants are in or just one test?
It would probably be separate tests depending. Would likely be separate tests. We would have to actually come there and see what the situation is. For separate fields, for separate varieties, separate greenhouses, it probably be separate tests.
43:37 When will a pesticide approved list be amended? There are no biological chemicals so where do we stand with that? IEC’s is not on the list.
EPA has a list that approved, you would have to look at that list, I wouldn’t know off the top of my head. I just saw that list earlier this week so there is a list from EPA.
44:03 Of the 21 failed tests, how did they destroy the crop?
There were different methods. There was depending on what the plants were, some plants were actually chipped and spread on the field, some were just tilled under, some were burned, some were piled and chipped up, chopped up and composted. Those are the basic methods.
44:41 Crop insurance may not be available but can you get insured through the FSA program?
Not sure you have to check in with the FSA office in your county.
44:59 Can you start in greenhouses and then move outdoors once the weather is optimal?
45:07 Is there a maximum number of sample tests we can purchase per growing season?
For regulatory purposes, we only take one official sample per variety.
45:22 If you plant clones that are Wisconsin certified strains, do you need the original seed certification from the clone supplier? The Wisconsin original website said that if you plant certified seed and they go hot, you are not criminally liable but it did not mention clone planting.
Certified seed versus certified clones, are there such a thing? Yeah I’m not aware of any certified clones.
46:05 Will statistics on testing success / fail for THC and varieties be published?
46:15 How do you plan to address cross-pollination issues?
We don’t, right? That’s a communication issue with neighbors as previously mentioned with another question, currently the law does not allow us to share any information of growers or processors. With the new law that will eventually be in place, will likely allow for that. I mean it’s not something you can necessarily do but when picking your location you can think about windbreaks that will also determine pollen flow. If you have a place where you have a tree line or something that’s a windbreak, that might deter pollen flow as well as you know same with insects if you have an area where insects might prefer to pollinate over your hemp crop, don’t plant that little area. Along those lines you could plant something like corn or a crop that would be a wind break that could be an annual that you could get.
47:20 If I plant in a field for CBD, but I want to keep some males and females in a separate greenhouse of the same variety so I can get seeds for next year do you test the fields? How do you test that? The greenhouse would only have a few plants one place for CBD and the other would be seed.
We’re testing plants for anything that’s being harvested.
47:48 For testing purposes, how do you treat breeding populations?
We already did that.
47:56 If we have a grower license number how do we register it and how can we add a processor license?
If you have a grower license and you wanted to grow, you would have registered to grow by March first. And if you wanted to add a processor license, you would have done that also by March first. So you would have to wait until next year now to get these additional registrations and licenses.
48:25 Do drying facility locations need to be registered and inspected?
They need to be registered or on your license locations and then inspections will be – we don’t have anything structured for inspections right now.
48:48 Any thoughts on using pruning methods or weighing branches down on smaller plots with good spacing, as a way to increase the quantity of flower formation per plant?
Yeah typically with the hemp crop we don’t take the care and some of the training and so forth that you might with a you know with a marijuana crop. In my opinion, unless you’re just doing a few plants and you and you want to you know really you know maximize these plants, it’s not it’s not a really time well-spent on a larger scale. I guess it depends on your scale and how much time you have but doing these things can potentially yield more flower, so will biomass.
49:39 As a processor, when I import concentrations such as isolate, crude, and tinctures from other states is paperwork (ie COA fit for commerce) required for me to process or does this rely more on your own company’s quality standards/policy? Note: all products received and processed will be sent out for third-party testing before sale in the public.
That’s up to your own quality standards and record keeping.
50:11 Are processors required to send samples of each output? Crude, distillate, isolate – or will these be compliant as long as we use approved plant material during the extraction process?
Samples of those are not required. That’s one of the big controversies right now in terms of what’s being regulated. Crude, distillate, and isolate for FDA, etc. so but it sounds like DATCP is not responsible for that.
50:43 With the high number of grower applications how do you anticipate handling testing and potential backlog? Will we be held to the two-week or can it go past the two-week turnaround?
Well we don’t expect it to go past the two-week turnaround and we will be hiring additional staff.
51:04 Those seem to be all scheduled 25 pesticides, will other pesticides listed as not harmful by the EPA be allowed, such as potassium bicarbonate?
Those are all organic and they are minor or potentially minor use so they’re gonna be on the EPA website.
51:23 Can I plant seeds that are not approved?
I think we answered that already.
51:28 If starts are made in the greenhouse, can it be transported to a different field site location? May be several miles apart.
Yeah we talked about that. As long as the locations are listed underneath their license.
51:47 Just a suggestion, but sounds like testing could be a constraint capacity dating item. Is there any by transferring the test method to another lab to help during peak periods?
We thought about that, we might do that if necessary.
52:07 What if the commercial farmer next me, to the field I want to plant will not use DATCPs suggestions for herbicides to use and they just continue to spray roundup?
That reportable. If used off label, it’s recordable. Department of Ag. If there’s a drift issue, file a complaint.
52:31 Prices growers received for high CBD flower grown in 2018?
52:52 If I have one strain growing in two different substrates do I need to get both tested?
Likely yes, not really knowing that it means entirely.
53:07 How sensitive are transplants to frost?
They’re pretty sensitive to really low temperature or really high temperature when they’re little transplant. They’ll get really hardy and come harvest they can they can handle some pretty substantial frost, but as a transplant they’re going to be pretty sensitive to low temps.
53:35 Would rotation of a cover crop address monocrop concerns?
It would to an extent, yes. I know some organic farmers use this method where they’ll plant corn and either interseed with a cover crop and then the following year the replant corn again. It’s possible but it’s a very short period of time that you’re breaking up that cycle so there may be some benefit but it would probably be minimal.
54:08 Does that disease susceptibility trial include CBD?
54:25 On determining sex, is the six week from the time the seed goes into the ground? How would you determine the time frame if using transplants?
Well just try to try to figure out how old your transplant is? I mean it depends on how old the little clone or the seedling is. It’s a range, so four to six weeks you can start early. I mean if it’s not showing just keep looking. If you can’t tell what sex it is, it’s not a concern quite yet.
55:04 Someone should mention that you need to be cautious of taking cuttings to make mother plants and produce clones if you signed an MDA. Yeah. So what that means though is where you’re sourcing your material from. If there’s an agreement that you’re making with that person you’re sourcing seed or clones from, whether or not you can make cuttings from the mother plant or grow seed from your plants and save the seed. That all is going to come from the person you’re buying your clones or seeds from. What you’re allowed to do with it in future generations of that plant. You need to be aware of the legality of that.
55:52 Does the land have to be certified organic for CBD? Are there are PPM / PPD thresholds of residual herbicides from prior crops?
It does not have to be certified organic grown. And the residual herbicide question, there is no answer to that because a concentration it has it varies on the soil structures of all the labels.
56:16 Could plants be covered during pollination to prevent pollination?
It’s not very feasible unless you just have a couple plants in your yard but in that case you could cover them and it might keep them safe from getting pollinated.
56:36 If I were to contract with a local professional greenhouse to start my hemp seedlings, would that farmer need to have a grower license even though the sub of what they are doing is literally just starting the plants?
Yes, they need a license.
56:53 Do you have one of the graphs for phosphorus because I think it’s important for flower growth?
I believe there is a phosphorus one and we will get it to the website.
57:08 Do growers need to worry about airborne pesticides?
That would be a drift issue. Yes, drift issue.