Kallis, G., Videira, N., Antunes, P., Pereira, A. G., Spash, C. L., Coccossis, H. et al. (2006) Finding 1

Watershed management participatory methods include, scenario workshops (develops ideas and actions based on visioning processes), mediated modeling (problem definition, conceptualization, specification, and policy analysis), and social multicriteria evaluation (compliments decision-making processes with social science techniques including institutional analysis, interviews,questionnaires, obeservation, polls, and focus groups). Scenario workshops and mediated modeling are well-suited to the early stages of the planning process (problem solving and identification of goals and alternatives) and good at educating participants and building capacity, but not as effective at resolving long-standing conflicts and achieving consensus.  Social multicriteria evaluation is better able to address the evaluation of alternatives, reveal trade-offs, and aid convergence between divergent stakeholder’s views; however, implementation is heavily reliant on experts, and allows for less participation and deliberation than scenario workshops or mediated modeling  in the goal-setting stage.  A hybrid of participatory methods may be the best approach. Continue reading →

Ghanbarpour, M. R., Hipel, K. W., & Abbaspour, K. C. (2005) Finding 2

In the long-term watershed planning process, assess and analyse different stakeholders’ preferences in order to prioritize various strategies and alternatives. For example, use an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) or a social choice function (SCF) process. The analytical hierarchy process is best used with expert groups and includes (1) the structuring of a problem into a hierarchy consisting of a goal and subordinate features, (2) pairwise comparisons between elements at each level, and (3) propagation of level-specific, local priorities to global priorities. The intensity of preference between any two elements is assessed by integers ranging from 1 to 9 (Saaty, 1980, 1990).  The social choice function is based on pairwise comparisons on the number of voters between pairs of strategies. It assumes that all assertions of preference between two strategies carry equal weight. Continue reading →

Habron, G. B., Kaplowitz, M. D., & Levine, R. L. (2004) Finding 1

Capture the social dynamics of grounds maintenance operations units including social, physical, and environmental responses to watershed management concerns to reveal key decision-making points in the system. Develop a framework of these dynamics, to illustrate activities needed to implement sustainable watershed and environmental management at large institutions. Continue reading →

Hartley, T. W. (2006) Finding 1

To increase US public acceptance of water reuse, such as high awareness of treatment technology, trust in local government; and of the challenges and opportunities of water reuse in the US:

  • Manage diverse types of information in order to serve the interests of all stakeholders, and ensure equal access of information, in order to promote learning and communication, and to build mutual understanding among all stakeholders.
  • Nurture multiple motives for the public to engage, demonstrate genuine commitment to hear the public’s voice.
  • Promote communication and public dialog in multiple forms and venues in all stages of decision making.
  • Ensure decisions made are fair, sound, and reasonable.
  • Build and maintain trust among decision makers and the general public.

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Hibbard, M., & Lurie, S. (2006) Finding 2

Investigate watershed council community involvement characteristics to promote effective engagement:

  • involvement with other organizations;
  • involvement at the local level (with government, private sector, and nonprofit organizations);
  • regional collaboration.

Continue reading →