Light Emitting Diodes or LEDs have been used for 40 years as indicator lights in electronic equipment. LEDs are long-lasting, tough and energy efficient and have now been adapted for general purpose and specialty lighting. An LED lamp is made up of clusters of individual LEDs and are available in a wide range of colors. Manufacturers have developed a wide range of lamps to replace screw-in Edison base bulbs, floodlights, linear fluorescent tube types and specialty lamps such as candelabras. LEDs have three distinct advantages over other types of lamps: they have long-life from 25,000 to over 100,000 hours; energy efficient – most with efficiencies of greater than 100 lumens per watt (versus about 15 for an incandescent), and they aren’t affected by cold, in fact they emit 15% more light at -20°F than at 75°F. They do not contain any heavy metals that can leach out and contaminate the environment. They do cost more but based on needing to purchase fewer bulbs and higher energy efficiency, they will usually pay for themselves in a few years. The publication “Lighting Technology: LED Lamps for Home, Farm and Small Business” has more information and examples of LED lamp types and cost comparisons.
Lighting Technology: LED Lamps for Home, Farm and Small Business, 2014, S.A. Sanford, University of Wisconsin Extension, Madison, WI – https://learningstore.extension.wisc.edu/Assets/pdfs/A4050.pdf